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Dia Internacional dos Direitos Humanos

Fevereiro 18, 2010

Pena de Morte IVPena de Morte IIIPena de Morte IIAbortoIgualdade de Direitos

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Dia Internacional dos Direitos Humanos

Fevereiro 10, 2010

No âmbito do dia internacional dos Direitos Humanos, foi pedido aos alunos do 10º A, B, C e E que construíssem um texto argumentativo, sobre um tema à sua escolha, relacionado com esta temática.

Depois de corrigidos, foram escolhidos os que agora podemos ler aqui.

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Dia Mundial da Filosofia

Novembro 11, 2009


Este  dia, comemorado na terceira quinta-feira do mês de Novembro,  foi instituído pela Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura (Unesco).

Esta data reforça a ideia de que a  filosofia  é importante para compreender o mundo e a vida.   Ela ajuda-nos a pensar, representar, julgar, decidir e agir com a criticidade que lhe é inerente. Nesse sentido, a filosofia tem muito por fazer na actualidade.

A  celebração do Dia Mundial da Filosofia, é uma forma de  promover a sua aprendizagem, reforçar  o seu ensinamento,  salientando o importante papel que pode desempenhar   ao serviço da diversidade cultural e da cooperação mundial entre os povos construindo assim sociedades mais éticas e igualitárias.

 

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Lógica Aristotélica

Novembro 11, 2009

Exercícios de Lógica Aristotélica

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PARLAMENTO DOS JOVENS (Motion for the national session)

Maio 22, 2009

XX NATIONAL SESSION OF THE EUROPEAN YOUTH PARLIAMENT

Porto, May 8th, 9th and 10th, 2009

Motion for a resolution by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs

The 7th European Parliament elections will take place on 6/7 June 2009 in 27 Member States. Almost 400 million Europeans will be eligible to elect 736 Members at the only European institution for which citizens can be directly choose their representatives.

What strategy should the EU adopt to raise awareness about voting rights and guarantee an high level of participation, specially from youngsters?

Submitted by: Ana Catarina Batista, Ana Cristina Silva, Catarina Agreira, Inês Fidalgo Martins, João Luís Cardoso, José Pedro Catré, Margarida Franco and Maria Inês Veríssimo.

A. Taking note that, from the 350 million electors of the EU, only 160 million voted in the 2004 European elections;

B. Fully alarmed by the drop of 16% of the participation in the European elections since 1974;

C. Bearing in mind the 3rd point of the Article 21st of The Universal Declaration of the Human Rights: “The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.”;

D. Realizing that 62% of the Europeans look for information about politics in the TV and radio;

E. Having in consideration that 25% of the Europeans think that the European Parliament plays an important role in their lives, still 45% believes that it could play a more important role;

F. Deeply concerned about the low participation on the last European elections in some countries like Estonia and Poland, caused, according to some euro-deputies, by the lack of information on the media;

G. Expressing our appreciation for the well accepted voting system implemented in Estonia where people can vote through the internet;

H. Confident that information allows people to vote consciously;

I. Deeply confident that education is an essential point when it comes to build citizens character;

The European Youth Parliament:

1) Emphasizes the importance of organising debates in form of forums and press conferences for example, where voters can clarify their doubts and make up their minds.

2) Insists on the implementation of strategies that allow people to vote anywhere in the EU by creating:

a) An international database, on which voters’ information will be available;

b) A secure and safe website that permits the voting through the internet, as is happening in other countries of the EU.

3) Calls upon the need of creating public spots, with computers and internet, where online voting can be submitted.

4) Supports the participation of celebrities in campaigns in order to raise people’s awareness for the importance of voting.

5) Draws attention to the creation of a public newspaper/magazine, regarding monthly issues debated in the EU, having in mind the clarification of the voters.

6) Promotes the implementation of public transportations that take people who do not have the necessary means to get to the voting polls in their area, ensuring that everyone is using their right to vote.

7) Endorses the creation of voting polls in hospitals and other facilities with permanently or temporary handicapped people who have difficulties in moving to the official voting places.

8) Encourages the creation of an organization, controlled by the European Parliament, responsible for:

a) The establishment of a European TV network, only available during election time, with the purpose of transmitting information about the elections;

b) Spreading live and trustable information throughout the internet;

c) Serving as a fast and reliable source for worldwide information.

9) Defends the implementation of a new subject on high school related to the importance of being an active European citizen, in order to:

a) Raise the awareness to the importance of voting;

b) Raise the interest of youngsters to the European election;

c) Promote annual debates at a school, regional and national level with the goal of choosing the best students to represent their country in a European contest.

XX SESSION NATIONALE DU PARLEMENT EUROPÉEN DES JEUNES

Porto 8, 9 et 10 Mars 2009

Proposition de résolution par la commission des affaires constitutionnelles

Les septièmes élections pour le Parlement européen auront lieu le 6 et 7 juin 2009 dans les 27 États membres. Près de 400 millions d’Européens vont élire 736 députés à la seule institution européenne pour laquelle les citoyens peuvent choisir directement leurs représentants.
Quelle stratégie l’UE devrait-elle prendre pour éveiller l’intérêt sur les droits de vote et pour assurer une forte participation, en particulier les jeunes ?

Soumis par: Ana Catarina Batista, Ana Cristina Silva, Catarina Agreira, Inês Martins Fidalgo, João Luís Cardoso, José Pedro Catré, Margarida Franco, Maria Inês Veríssimo.

A. Tenant en compte le 3ème point de l’article 21 de la déclaration universelle des droits humains: La volonté du peuple est le fondement de l’autorité des pouvoirs publics ; cette volonté doit s’exprimer par des élections honnêtes qui doivent avoir lieu périodiquement, au suffrage universel égal et au vote secret ou suivant une procédure équivalente assurant la liberté du vote ;

B. Vu que des 350 millions d’électeurs, seulement 160 millions on voté aux élections européennes en 2004 ;

C. Inquiets par rapport à la descente de 16% en ce qui concerne la participation aux élections européennes depuis l’année de 1974 ;

D. Tenant en compte la citation des eurodéputés qui on dit que la baisse de la participation de la Slovaquie et de la Pologne aux Elections Européennes en 2004 se doit au manque d’information donné par les médias à la population ;

E. Ayant réalisé que 62% des européens cherchent de l’information sûr la politique à la télévision et à la radio ;

F. Tenant en compte que 25% des européens pensent que le parlement européen détiens un rôle important dans leurs vies, 25% pense qu’il peut être encore plus important que ce qu’il l’est déjà ;

G. Démontrant nôtre satisfaction face o système de votations bien accepté qui a été implémenté en Estonie où les gens peuvent voter par Internet ;

H. Ayant confiance que l’information puisse permettre que la votation se fasse plus consciemment ;

I. Croyant que l’éducation est un point essentiel quand on parle de la formation du caractère des citoyens ;

Le Parlement dê jeunes doit:

1) Souligner l’importance des discussions sur la façon d’organiser des forums et des conférences de presse, par exemple, où les électeurs peuvent clarifier leurs doutes et leurs décisions.

2) Encourager la mise en œuvre de stratégies qui permettent aux citoyens de voter n’importe où dans l’UE, à travers la création de:

a) Une base de données où l’information des électeurs sera disponible;

b) D’un site Web sécurisé qui permet le vote par Internet, comme c’est déjà le cas dans certains pays de l’UE;

3) Demander la création d’espaces publics avec des ordinateurs et l’internet, où le vote peut être soumis en ligne.

4) Encourager la participation de célébrités dans les campagnes de sensibilisation parmi les personnes en ce qui concerne l’importance du vote.

5) Attirer l’attention sur la création d’un journal / magazine mensuel, des publications contenant le débat public dans l’UE, ayant comme but l’information aux citoyens.

6) Promouvoir la mise en œuvre des transports publics qui mènent les gens, qui n’ont pas de moyens, d’aller aux urnes dans leur région, en veillant à ce que chacun bénéficie du droit de vote.

7) Suggérer la création des bureaux de vote dans les hôpitaux et autres lieux avec des gens qui sont, de façon permanente ou temporaire, dans l’impossibilité d’accéder aux locaux de vote.

8) Encourager la création d’un organisme, contrôlé par le Parlement européen, chargé de:

a) La création d’une chaîne de télévision européenne, disponible uniquement pendant les élections, afin de transmettre des informations sur ce qui concerne les élections;

b) Transmettre des informations fiables et constamment mises à jour via l’Internet;

c) Fonctionner comme source d’information rapide et en toute fiabilité.

9) Prendre en charge la mise en œuvre d’une nouvelle matière scolaire dans le secondaire liée à l’importance d’être un citoyen européen actif, de façon à:

a) Attirer l’attention sur l’importance du vote;

b) Renforcer l’intérêt des jeunes sur les élections européennes;

c) Promouvoir des débats à l’école, par région et par pays, afin de choisir les meilleurs élèves pour représenter leur pays dans les compétitions européennes.

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Parlamento Europeu dos Jovens – Moção

Maio 8, 2009

Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
European environmental requirements and international trade: how can the European Union manage to defend a model of environmental excellence without harming the competitiveness of its companies or detracting from the openness of its economy?

Submitted by: Ana Catarina Batista, Ana Cristina Silva, Catarina Agreira, João Luís Cardoso, José Pedro Catré, Margarida Franco and Maria Inês Veríssimo.

The European Youth Parliament:
1) Reminds the importance of developing renewable energies as companies’ main source of energy, so that prices are lowered and therefore the purchasing ability of EU average citizens can be improved as these types of energy are cheap and lucrative after its investment;
2) Emphasizes the need of a sharing agreement, on which every country of the EU contributes with the renewable energies that they are able to produce, according to their different geographical characteristics;
3) Draws attention to the importance of consultancy studies in order to evaluate the best features of each country to maximize the income of energy.
4) Supports the creation of research funds amongst universities or other researching entities, responsible for the development of green energies, new techniques or new ways to take advantage of them;
5) Considers the attribution of social and/or financial benefits to those who:
a) Study and investigate in the fields of sustainable development;
b) Adopt green energies for private usage;
6) Promotes the implementation of certificates to ecological companies as a way of raising public recognition among consumers, leading to their preference for these companies’ products.
7) Encourages the environment friendly companies to associate themselves with noble causes to which they would revert money to and interact with one another in order to compensate for one’s difficulties mutually;
8) Calls upon the establishment of lower taxes for green products, with the aim of equalizing the prices to those companies that do not implement ecological measures;
9) Encourages the foundation of a specific area in major cities, where private cars won’t be allowed to circulate, with the purpose of:
a) Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases;
b) Motivating the use of public transports;

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O que é a Filosofia?

Março 20, 2009

A filosofia é diferente da ciência e da matemática. Ao contrário da ciência, não assenta em experimentações nem na observação, mas apenas no pensamento. E, ao contrário da matemática, não tem métodos formais de prova. A filosofia faz-se colocando questões, argumentando, ensaiando ideias e pensando em argumentos possíveis contra elas e procurando saber como funcionam realmente os nossos conceitos.

A preocupação fundamental da filosofia consiste em questionarmos e compreendermos ideias muito comuns que usamos todos os dias sem pensarmos nelas. Um historiador pode perguntar o que aconteceu em determinado momento do passado, mas um filósofo perguntará: «O que é o tempo?» Um matemático pode investigar as relações entre os números, mas um filósofo perguntará: «O que é um número?» Um físico perguntará de que são constituídos os átomos ou o que explica a gravidade, mas um filósofo irá perguntar como podemos saber que existe qualquer coisa fora das nossas mentes. Um psicólogo pode investigar como é que as crianças aprendem uma linguagem, mas um filósofo perguntará: «Que faz uma palavra significar qualquer coisa?» Qualquer pessoa pode perguntar se entrar num cinema sem pagar está errado, mas um filósofo perguntará: «O que torna uma acção certa ou errada?»

Não poderíamos viver sem tomarmos como garantidas as ideias de tempo, número, conhecimento, linguagem, certo e errado, a maior parte do tempo, mas em filosofia investigamos essas mesmas coisas. O objectivo é levar o conhecimento do mundo e de nós um pouco mais longe. É óbvio que não é fácil. Quanto mais básicas são as ideias que tentamos investigar, menos instrumentos temos para nos ajudarem. Não há muitas coisas que possamos assumir como verdadeiras ou tomar como garantidas. Por isso, a filosofia é uma actividade de certa forma vertiginosa, e poucos dos seus resultados ficam por desafiar por muito tempo.
NAGEL, T. (1997) Que quer dizer tudo isto? : uma iniciação à Filosofia. Lisboa: Gradiva.